|Industry||Energy: Oil and gas|
|Founded||August 5, 1882(as Standard Oil of New Jersey)|
|Founder||Split from Standard Oil by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1911; merged with Mobil in 1999 to form present name|
|Darren Woods (chairman & CEO)|
|Revenue||US$276.692 billion (2021)|
|US$24.019 billion (2021)|
|US$23.040 billion (2021)|
|Total assets||US$338.923 billion (2021)|
|Total equity||US$168.577 billion (2021)|
Number of employees
ExxonMobil Corporation[a] (commonly shortened to Exxon) is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil, both of which are used as retail brands, alongside Esso, for fueling stations and downstream products today. The company is vertically-integrated across the entire oil and gas industry, and within it is also a chemicals division which produces plastic, synthetic rubber, and other chemical products. ExxonMobil is incorporated in New Jersey.
ExxonMobil's earliest corporate ancestor was Vacuum Oil Company, though Standard Oil is its largest ancestor prior to its breakup. The entity today known as ExxonMobil grew out of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (or Jersey Standard for short), the corporate entity which effectively controlled all of Standard Oil prior to its breakup. Jersey Standard grew alongside and with extensive partnership another Standard Oil descendant and its future merger partner, the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony), both of which grew bigger by merging with various third companies like Humble Oil (which merged with Jersey Standard) and Vacuum Oil (merged with Socony). Both companies underwent rebranding in the 1960s and early 1970s, and by the time of the 1999 merger, Jersey Standard had been known as Exxon, and Socony known as Mobil. The merger agreement between Exxon and Mobil stipulated that Exxon would buy Mobil and rebrand as ExxonMobil, with Mobil's CEO becoming the vice-chairman of the company.
One of the world's largest companies by revenue, ExxonMobil since its merger varied from the first to tenth largest publicly traded company by revenue, and has one of the largest market capitalizations out of any company. As of 2022, in the most recent rankings released in the Fortune 500, ExxonMobil was ranked sixth, and twelfth on the Fortune Global 500. ExxonMobil is the largest investor-owned oil company in the world, the largest oil company headquartered in the Western world, and the largest of the Big Oil companies in both production and market value. ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. With 21 oil refineries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 4.9 million barrels (780,000 m3), ExxonMobil is the second largest oil refiner in the world, trailing only Sinopec. Approximately 55.56% of the company's shares are held by institutions, the largest of which as of 2019 were The Vanguard Group (8.15%), BlackRock (6.61%), and State Street Corporation (4.83%).
ExxonMobil had been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska, considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. The company has also been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, and its impact on various societies across the world.
|Company||Revenue (USD)||Profit (USD)||Brands|
|ExxonMobil||$286 billion||$23 billion||Mobil|
|Shell plc||$273 billion||$20 billion||Jiffy Lube|
|TotalEnergies||$185 billion||$16 billion||Bostik|
|BP||$164 billion||$7.6 billion||Amoco|
|Chevron||$163 billion||$16 billion||Texaco|
|Marathon||$141 billion||$10 billion||ARCO|
|Phillips 66||$115 billion||$1.3 billion||76|
|Valero||$108 billion||$0.9 billion||Texaco|
|Eni||$77 billion||$5.8 billion||—|
|ConocoPhillips||$48.3 billion||$8.1 billion||—|
ExxonMobil traces its roots to Vacuum Oil Company, founded in the 1860s. Vacuum Oil later merged with the Standard Oil Company of New York, which later changed its name to Mobil and merged with Exxon (originally the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey) in 1999.
With the merger, the two companies practically merged, with the new company's name containing both of the trade names of its immediate predecessors. However, the structure of the merger provided that Exxon was the surviving company, rather than a new company being created.
ExxonMobil is the largest non-government-owned company in the energy industry and produces about 3% of the world's oil and about 2% of the world's energy.
ExxonMobil is vertically-integrated into a number of global operating divisions. These divisions are grouped into three categories for reference purposes, though the company also has several standalone divisions, such as Coal & Minerals. It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as XTO Energy and SeaRiver Maritime. ExxonMobil also has a majority ownership stake in Imperial Oil.
- Upstream (oil exploration, extraction, shipping, and wholesale operations)
- Product Solutions (downstream, chemical)
- Low Carbon Solutions 
The upstream division makes up the majority of ExxonMobil's revenue, accounting for approximately 70% of it. In 2021, ExxonMobil had about 30 billion barrels of oil and oil equivalents, as well as 38.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas.
In the United States, ExxonMobil's petroleum exploration and production activities are concentrated in the Permian Basin, Bakken Formation, Woodford Shale, Caney Shale, and the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, ExxonMobil has several gas developments in the regions of Marcellus Shale, Utica Shale, Haynesville Shale, Barnett Shale, and Fayetteville Shale. All natural gas activities are conducted by its subsidiary, XTO Energy. As of December 31, 2014, ExxonMobil owned 14.6 million acres (59,000 km2) in the United States, of which 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2) were offshore, 1.5 million acres (6,100 km2) of which were in the Gulf of Mexico. In California, it has a joint venture called Aera Energy LLC with Shell Oil. In Canada, the company holds 5.4 million acres (22,000 km2), including 1 million acres (4,000 km2) offshore and 0.7 million acres (2,800 km2) of the Kearl Oil Sands Project.
In Argentina, ExxonMobil holds 0.9 million acres (3,600 km2), Germany 4.9 million acres (20,000 km2), in the Netherlands ExxonMobil owns 1.5 million acres (6,100 km2), in Norway it owns 0.4 million acres (1,600 km2) offshore, and the United Kingdom 0.6 million acres (2,400 km2) offshore. In Africa, upstream operations are concentrated in Angola where it owns 0.4 million acres (1,600 km2) offshore, Chad where it owns 46,000 acres (19,000 ha), Equatorial Guinea where it owns 0.1 million acres (400 km2) offshore, and Nigeria where it owns 0.8 million acres (3,200 km2) offshore. In addition, ExxonMobil plans to start exploration activities off the coast of Liberia and the Ivory Coast. In the past, ExxonMobil had exploration activities in Madagascar, however these operations were ended due to unsatisfactory results.
In Asia, it holds 9,000 acres (3,600 ha) in Azerbaijan, 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2) in Indonesia, of which 1.3 million acres (5,300 km2) are offshore, 0.7 million acres (2,800 km2) in Iraq, 0.3 million acres (1,200 km2) in Kazakhstan, 0.2 million acres (810 km2) in Malaysia, 65,000 acres (26,000 ha) in Qatar, 10,000 acres (4,000 ha) in Yemen, 21,000 acres (8,500 ha) in Thailand, and 81,000 acres (33,000 ha) in the United Arab Emirates.
Until the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, ExxonMobil held 85,000 acres (34,000 ha) in the Sakhalin-I project through its subsidiary Exxon Neftegas. Together with Rosneft, it has developed 63.6 million acres (257,000 km2) in Russia, including the East-Prinovozemelsky field. In Australia, ExxonMobil held 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2), including 1.6 million acres (6,500 km2) offshore. It also operates the Longford Gas Conditioning Plant, and participates in the development of Gorgon LNG project. In Papua New Guinea, it holds 1.1 million acres (4,500 km2), including the PNG Gas project. After Russia's 2022 invasion began, though, ExxonMobil announced it was fully pulling out of both Russia and Sakhalin-I, and launched a lawsuit against Russia's federal government on August 30.
ExxonMobil formed its Product Solutions division in 2022, combining its previously-separate Downstream and Chemical divisions into a single company.
ExxonMobil markets products around the world under the brands of Exxon, Mobil, and Esso. Mobil is ExxonMobil's primary retail gasoline brand in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes, and the Midwest. Exxon is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas (shared with Mobil), and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states. ExxonMobil has stations in 46 states, just behind Shell USA and ahead of Phillips 66, lacking a presence only in Alaska, Hawaii, Iowa, and Kansas.
Outside of the United States, Esso and Mobil are primarily used, with Esso operating in 14 countries and Mobil operating in 29 countries and regions.
ExxonMobil's primary retail brands worldwide are Exxon, Esso, Mobil, with the former being used exclusively in the United States and the latter two being used in most other countries where ExxonMobil operates. Esso is the only one of its brands not used widely in the United States.
Since 2018, the company additionally has operated a loyalty program, ExxonMobil Rewards+, where customers earn rewards points when filling up at its stations in the US and later the UK. The program, however, has received criticism for offering most of its benefits to those who purchase premium gasoline.
ExxonMobil Chemical is a petrochemical company that was created by merging Exxon's and Mobil's chemical industries. Its principal products includes basic olefins and aromatics, ethylene glycol, polyethylene, and polypropylene along with speciality lines such as elastomers, plasticizers, solvents, process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins. The company also produces synthetic lubricant base stocks as well as lubricant additives, propylene packaging films and catalysts. ExxonMobil is the largest producer of butyl rubber. Infineum, a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell, is manufacturing and marketing crankcase lubricant additives, fuel additives, and specialty lubricant additives, as well as automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, and industrial oils.
Mobil 1, a brand of synthetic motor oil, is a major sponsor of multiple racing teams and as the official motor oil of NASCAR since 2003. ExxonMobil is currently in partnerships with Oracle Red Bull Racing in Formula One, Kalitta Motorsports, and Team McLaren.
ExxonMobil operates 21 refineries worldwide, and the company claims 80% of its refining capacity is integrated with chemical or lube basestocks. ExxonMobil's largest refinery in the United States is its Baytown Refinery, located in Baytown, Texas, and its largest refinery overall is its Jurong Island facility in Singapore; these two refineries combined output over 1.15 million barrels of oil per day. In 2021, ExxonMobil's global average refining capacity was 4.6 million barrels per day, with the United States producing a plurality of the company's refining capacity at about 1.77 million barrels per day. ExxonMobil's corporate website claims it refines almost 5 million barrels per day.
Low Carbon Solutions
Officially formed with ExxonMobil's 2022 corporate restructuring, and currently led by former General Motors president Dan Ammann, Low Carbon Solutions is the company's alternative energy division. The division intends to lower emissions in hard-to-decarbonize sectors such as heavy industry, commercial transportation, and power generation using a combination of lower-emission fuels, hydrogen, and carbon capture and storage. Low Carbon Solutions conducts research on clean energy technologies, including algae biofuels, biodiesel made from agricultural waste, carbonate fuel cells, and refining crude oil into plastic by using a membrane and osmosis instead of heat.
ExxonMobil publicly announced it would be investing $15 billion in what it deemed a "lower carbon future", and claims to be the world leader in carbon capture and storage. The company additionally plans that its Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions will be carbon neutral by 2050. ExxonMobil additionally acquired biofuel company Biojet AS in 2022, and its Canadian subsidiary Imperial Oil is moving ahead with plans to produce a renewable diesel biofuel.
According to Fortune Global 500, ExxonMobil was the second largest company, second largest publicly held corporation, and the largest oil company in the United States by 2017 revenue. For the fiscal year 2020, ExxonMobil reported a loss of US$22.4 billion, with an annual revenue of US$181.5 billion, a decline of 31.5% over the previous fiscal cycle.
|Net income (loss)
|Price per share
Headquarters and offices
The company decided to consolidate its Houston operations into one new campus located in northern Harris County and vacating its offices on 800 Bell St. which it occupied since 1963. This includes twenty office buildings totaling 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2), a wellness center, laboratory, and three parking garages. It is designed to house nearly 10,000 employees with an additional 1,500 employees located in a satellite campus in Hughes Landing in The Woodlands, Texas.
Board of directors
The current chairman of the board and CEO of ExxonMobil Corp. is Darren W. Woods. Woods was elected chairman of the board and CEO effective January 1, 2017, after the retirement of former chairman and CEO Rex Tillerson. Before his election as chairman and CEO, Woods was elected president of ExxonMobil and a member of the board of directors in 2016.
- Michael J. Angelakis, chairman and chief executive officer of Atairos Group Inc.
- Susan Avery, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution president emerita
- Angela Braly, former president and CEO of WellPoint (now Anthem)
- Ursula Burns, Xerox former chairman and CEO
- Gregory J. Goff, former executive vice chairman, Marathon Petroleum Corporation
- Kaisa H. Hietala, board professional
- Joseph L. Hooley, former chairman, president and CEO of State Street Corporation
- Steven A. Kandarian, chairman, president and CEO of MetLife, Inc.
- Alexander A. Karsner, senior strategist at X
- Jeffrey W. Ubben, Founder, Portfolio Manager, and Managing Partner, Inclusive Capital Partners, L.P.
- Darren W. Woods, chairman of the board and CEO, ExxonMobil Corporation
On March 22, 2022, Frazier, ExxonMobil's lead independent director, announced he would not be standing for reelection to the board. The company announced Hooley would become the new lead independent director. Three of the directors nominated at the last Annual General Meeting were nominated after a proxy battle against hedge fund Engine No.1 and were nominated against the suggestion of the board.
ExxonMobil's key executives are:
- Darren Woods, Chairman and CEO
- Neil Chapman, Senior Vice President
- Kathryn Mikells, CFO and Senior Vice President
- Jack Williams, Senior Vice President
- James Spellings, General Tax Counsel and Vice President
Climate change controversies
ExxonMobil's environmental record has faced much criticism for its stance and impact on global warming. In 2018, the Political Economy Research Institute ranks ExxonMobil tenth among American corporations emitting airborne pollutants, thirteenth by emitting greenhouse gases, and sixteenth by emitting water pollutants. A 2017 report places ExxonMobil as the fifth largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions from 1998 to 2015.As of 2005[update], ExxonMobil had committed less than 1% of their profits towards researching alternative energy, which, according to the advocacy organization Ceres, is less than other leading oil companies.[needs update] According to the 2021 Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index (AERI), ExxonMobil is ranked as the 6th most environmentally responsible company among 120 oil, gas, and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle. The company's activities gained international notoriety from many incidents, most notably the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1979.
Between the 1980s and 2014, ExxonMobil was a notable denier of climate change, though the company officially changed its position in 2014 to acknowledge the existence of climate change. ExxonMobil's prolonged response incited the creation of the Exxon Knew movement, which aims to hold the company accountable for various climate-related incidents. ExxonMobil has used its website to attack Exxon Knew, claiming that it is a coordinated effort to defame the company.
ExxonMobil's actives in Louisiana, specifically its Baton Rouge Refinery, have given the area the nickname of Cancer Alley. The company's activities, along with other operations and refineries in the area, have been the source of increased cancer infections, lower air quality, and as seen by some, potential environmental racism committed by the company.
Human rights violations in Indonesia
Beginning in the late 1980s, ExxonMobil (through predecessor Mobil) hired military units of the Indonesian National Army to provide security for their gas extraction and liquefaction project in Aceh, Indonesia, with the military units being accused of committing human rights violations. ExxonMobil eventually pulled out completely of Indonesia in 2001, though the company denies any wrongdoing.
The company has also been accused of human rights violations and abusing its geopolitical influence. In the book Private Empire by Steve Coll, ExxonMobil is described as extremely powerful in dealing with the countries in which it drills, going to the point as describing such countries' governments as "constrained". The company's corporate ancestors are also blamed for the outbreak of the 1954 Jebel Akhdar War, which was sparked by the Iraq Petroleum Company's activities.
- History of ExxonMobil
- Litigation involving ExxonMobil:
- In official SEC filings, the company is split into two words and phrased as Exxon Mobil Corporation. However, in most media and communications, the two names are merged. Occasionally, the company is also abbreviated to EM, especially with regard to the company's retail rewards program.
- Data is based on the 2022 Fortune 500.
- Motley Fool Staff (February 10, 1999). "Exxon Mobil (Drip Port) February 10, 1999". The Motley Fool. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
- "EXXON MOBIL CORPORATION". opencorporates.com. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
- "Exxon Mobil to exit Irving headquarters for Houston-area megacampus". Dallas News. January 31, 2022. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil Earns $23 Billion in 2021, Initiates $10 Billion Share Repurchase Program" (PDF). corporate.exxonmobil.com. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
- Bloom, Michael. "Here are Monday's biggest analyst calls: Tesla, Amazon, Exxon, Costco, Apple & more". CNBC. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
- "Exxon should not participate in upcoming auction of oil blocks – Patterson". Stabroek News. August 29, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
- "Exxon CEO Loves What Manchin Did for Big Oil in $370 Billion Deal". Bloomberg.com. July 29, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil, Our History". Exxon Mobil Corp. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
- "ExxonMobil, Our Brands". Exxon Mobil Corp. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "Products | ExxonMobil Chemical". www.exxonmobilchemical.com. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
- "10-K". 10-K. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
- "Certificate of incorporation and by-laws". ExxonMobil. Retrieved September 19, 2022.
- Kumar, B. Rajesh (2019), Kumar, B. Rajesh (ed.), "ExxonMobil Merger", Wealth Creation in the World’s Largest Mergers and Acquisitions: Integrated Case Studies, Management for Professionals, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 101–109, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-02363-8_9, ISBN 978-3-030-02363-8, S2CID 239577792, retrieved September 15, 2022
- "Apple loses title of world's most valuable company to Exxon". Fox News. April 17, 2013. Archived from the original on April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Fortune 500". Forbes. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- "Exxon Mobil | 2022 Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
- "Global 500". Fortune. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
- "Top ten companies by oil production". Offshore Technology. May 14, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
- "Exxon Mobil Corporation Announces 2013 Reserves Replacement Totaled". marketwatch.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "Oil companies with largest refining capacity 2019". Statista. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- "A look inside Downstream". ExxonMobil. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- Holusha, John (April 21, 1989). "Exxon's Public-Relations Problem". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "11 Major Oil Spills Of The Maritime World". Marine Insight. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- Ian Thompson (July 30, 2012). "Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- "Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
- Brooks, Nancy Rivera (December 2, 1998). "Exxon and Mobil Agree to Biggest Merger Ever". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Exxon Mobil eyes multi-billion dollar investment at Singapore refinery | Market Report Company – analytics, Prices, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene, Russia, Ukraine, Europe, Asia, reports". www.mrcplast.com. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- TopBlog. "Energy Choices: ExxonMobil – Exxon Energy". Energy Choices (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "Business divisions". ExxonMobil. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Financial operations overview and highlights | ExxonMobil". ExxonMobil. Archived from the original on October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
- "ExxonMobil's proved reserves by product type 2021". Statista. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Exxon Mobil Corp (XOM)". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Toweh, Alphonso (November 13, 2015). "Exxon Mobil to drill offshore post-Ebola Liberia". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Bavier, Joe (December 17, 2014). "Ivory Coast signs deals with ExxonMobil for two oil blocks". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Rabary, Lovasoa (July 4, 2015). "Exxon Mobil ends oil exploration in Madagascar after poor finds -minister". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Reuters (August 30, 2022). "Exxon escalates dispute with Russia over barred exit from oil project - WSJ". Reuters. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- Valle, Sabrina (February 1, 2022). "Exxon unveils sweeping restructuring in latest cost cutting move". Reuters. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- Exxon Mobil gas station locations in the USA. Scrape Hero. Archived from the original (PNG) on November 19, 2021.
- "Our global brands". ExxonMobil. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Exxon in Talks to Restructure Stake in Japan Refining Unit". Bloomberg News. January 5, 2012. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Okada, Yuji; Adelman, Jacob (January 30, 2012). "TonenGeneral to Buy Exxon Japan Refining, Marketing Unit for $3.9 Billion". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- "ExxonMobil launches new Exxon Mobil rewards loyalty program". ExxonMobil. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
- Paul, Trina. "These 5 gas rewards programs that can save you money at the pump". CNBC. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
- "Esso and Nectar to launch new loyalty partnership | ExxonMobil United Kingdom". ExxonMobil. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil chemicals: petrochemicals since 1886". ExxonMobil.com. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- "Infineum". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- "NASCAR® engines use Mobil 1™ | Mobil™". www.mobil.com. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Formula One® – The Mobil 1™/Red Bull Racing partnership". www.mobil.com. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Mobil 1™ Returns to NHRA Racing With Multi-Year Sponsorship of Toyota Racing Development and Kalitta Motorsports". www.businesswire.com. December 12, 2019. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- Sam (February 14, 2011). "McLaren extends Mobil 1 partnership". Racecar Engineering. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "A look inside Downstream". ExxonMobil. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil refining capacity by region 2021". Statista. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "4 of Nation's 10 Largest Oil Refineries Located Along Texas Gulf Coast". Zehl & Associates. January 4, 2022. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- admin. "World's Largest Refineries | Oilandgasclub.com". Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- Hirtenstein, Anna (November 3, 2017). "Exxon Quietly Researching Hundreds of Green Projects". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- "ExxonMobil restructuring with low-carbon solutions at forefront". Environment + Energy Leader. February 2, 2022. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil Acquires Large Stake in Biofuel Company Biojet AS". Environment + Energy Leader. January 12, 2022. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Why we're investing $15 billion in a lower-carbon future". ExxonMobil. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
- "Fortune Global 500 List 2018". Fortune. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- "2020 Financial and Operating Data" (PDF). ExxonMobil. April 2, 2021. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
- "2009 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 3, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2011 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2012 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2013 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Annualreports.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "ExxonMobil Earns $19.7 Billion in 2017; $8.4 Billion in Fourth Quarter". ExxonMobil News Releases. Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "2018 SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT" (PDF). ExxonMobil News Releases. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 14, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- "2019 Summary Annual Report" (PDF). Exxon Mobil.
- "2021 Financial and Operating Data" (PDF). ExxonMobil. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
- "Business Headquarters Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine." ExxonMobil. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Takahashi, Paul (January 31, 2022). "Exxon to move headquarters to Houston, from Dallas-area Irving". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "ExxonMobil's New Campus: Giving Houston a Second Energy Corridor". Urban Land Magazine. May 4, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- Sarnoff, Nancy (January 28, 2010). "ExxonMobil is considering a move". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Stephens, Matt (January 14, 2014). "ExxonMobil announces plans to open two new offices in Hughes Landing". impact. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "Exxon Mobil Corporation, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Dec 16, 2016" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 24, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- "Exxon Mobil Corp. Board of Directors". Exxon Mobil Corp. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "ExxonMobil Lead Director Ken Frazier to Retire; Jay Hooley to Become Lead Director". www.businesswire.com. March 22, 2022. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
- Herbst-Bayliss, Svea (June 29, 2021). "Little Engine No. 1 beat Exxon with just $12.5 mln – sources". Reuters. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
- "Mergent Online - Company Detail : ExxonMobil". www.mergentonline.com. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
- "Irving-based ExxonMobil pledges to go net-zero by 2050". January 25, 2022.
- "Big US Pension Fund Joins Critics Of ExxonMobil Climate Stance". Energy-daily.com. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- "Toxic 100 Air Polluters Index (2018 Report, Based on 2015 Data)". Political Economy Research Institute. October 26, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- "Greenhouse 100 Polluters Index (2018 Report, Based on 2015 Data)". Political Economy Research Institute. April 21, 2015. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Admin (April 21, 2015). "Toxic 100 Water Polluters Index (2018 Report, Based on 2015 Data)". Peri. Political Economy Research Institute. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Riley, Tess (July 10, 2017). "Just 100 companies responsible for 71% of global emissions, study says". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "New report shows just 100 companies are source of over 70% of emissions – CDP". www.cdp.net. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- Mufson, Steven (April 2, 2008). "Familiar Back and Forth With Oil Executives". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- "ERES: ExxonMobil Shareholders Relying on Fumes". Heatisonline.org. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Overland, Indra; Bourmistrov, Anatoli; Dale, Brigt; Irlbacher‐Fox, Stephanie; Juraev, Javlon; Podgaiskii, Eduard; Stammler, Florian; Tsani, Stella; Vakulchuk, Roman; Wilson, Emma C. (May 2021). "The Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index : A method to rank heterogenous extractive industry companies for governance purposes". Business Strategy and the Environment. 30 (4): 1623–1643. doi:10.1002/bse.2698. ISSN 0964-4733. S2CID 233618866.
- Schwartz, John (May 23, 2016). "Public Campaign Against Exxon Has Roots in a 2012 Meeting". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
- "Exxon knew of climate change in 1981, email says – but it funded deniers for 27 more years". the Guardian. July 8, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
- Times, Ivan Penn Ivan Penn is a former staff writer for the Los Angeles (January 20, 2016). "California to investigate whether Exxon Mobil lied about climate-change risks". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
- "Understanding the #ExxonKnew controversy". ExxonMobil. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
- Yang, DaHyung (2018). Incremental Landscape at a Baton Rouge Oil Refinery: Temporal Framework for Phytoremediation in Louisiana Cancer Alley (Thesis). Louisiana State University Libraries. doi:10.31390/gradschool_theses.4704.
- Pasley, James. "Inside Louisiana's horrifying 'Cancer Alley,' an 85-mile stretch of pollution and environmental racism that's now dealing with some of the highest coronavirus death rates in the country". Business Insider. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
- "Oozing success". The Economist. August 11, 2012. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
- "Milestones: 1921–1936 – Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
- "The Jebel Akhdar War Oman 1954-1959". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- Bender, Rob, and Tammy Cannoy-Bender. An Unauthorized Guide to: Mobil Collectibles – Chasing the Red Horse. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1999.
- Exxon Corp. Century of Discovery: An Exxon Album. 1982.
- Gibb, George S., and Evelyn H. Knowlton. The Resurgent Years, 1911–1927: History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1956.
- Hidy, Ralph W., and Muriel E. Hidy. Pioneering in Big Business, 1882–1911: History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1955.
- Larson, Henrietta M., and Kenneth Wiggins Porter. History of Humble Oil & Refining Co.: A Study in Industrial Growth. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1959.
- Larson, Henrietta M., Evelyn H. Knowlton, and Charles S. Popple. New Horizons, 1927–1950: History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
- McIntyre, J. Sam. The Esso Collectibles Handbook: Memorabilia from Standard Oil of New Jersey. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1998.
- Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters: The 100-year Battle for the World's Oil Supply. New York: Bantom Books, 1991.
- Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey). Ships of the Esso Fleet in World War II. 1946.
- Tarbell, Ida M. All in a Day's Work: An Autobiography.. New York: The MacMillan Co., 1939.
- Tarbell, Ida M., and David Mark Chalmers. The History of the Standard Oil Co.. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
- Wall, Bennett H. Growth in a Changing Environment: A History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) 1950–1972 and Exxon Corp. (1972–1975). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988.
- Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
- Coll, Steve (2012). Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-594-20335-0.
- Painter, David S. (1987). Private Power and Public Policy: Multinational Oil Corporations and United States Foreign Policy, 1941–1954. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-850-43021-6.
- Pratt, Joseph A. (2012). "Exxon and the Control of Oil". The Journal of American History. 99 (1): 145–154. doi:10.1093/jahist/jas149.
- Official website
- The ExxonMobil Historical Collection at the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas
- Business data for Exxon Mobil Corporation:
- Exxon Mobil Lobbying Profile – Opensecrets.org